Lithium-ion, lithium iron phosphate or flow — which is best suited to large-scale energy storage?
Battery technology is at the forefront of modern consumer and industrial markets. Developments have come a long way over the past 25 years, but innovation has increased significantly during the last five. Li-ion batteries have advanced rapidly and now have increased energy density and long cyclic stability.
Such innovation presents opportunities for battery technology developers and patent protection is essential to help companies capitalise on their R&D investments. Here, we use a wealth of recent examples to highlight exactly which battery elements and characteristics can be protected, while highlighting the optimal approach to patent protection.
For many years, nickel-cadmium was the only suitable battery for any type of portable equipment (such as wireless communications and mobile computing). Nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion options emerged in the early 1990s. Today, lithium-ion is the most common cell system across most industry sectors.
The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of other the standard materials (i.e. nickel-cadmium) and there is potential for even higher energy densities. The load characteristics are considered good and Li-systems offer high cell voltage of plus four Volts with a single cell which is suitable for most modern mobile phones. Also, Lithium-ion is low maintenance, has no memory effects and no scheduled cycling, with Li-ion systems (unlike nickel-cadmium) exhibiting less self-discharge.
Despite these various advantages, Li-ion cells have their drawbacks. These batteries tend to be fragile and require protection circuits to maintain safe operation. The protection circuits (built into each pack) limit peak voltage during charge and prevent cell voltage from dropping too low on discharge. Additionally, cell temperatures require constant monitoring to prevent spikes, fire or explosions. Typically, the maximum charge and discharge current on most battery packs are limited to between 1C and 2C to minimise metallic lithium plating on overcharge. Age-related degenerative effects are an important consideration for battery design and, if not addressed, capacity deterioration can occur after two or three years.
Accordingly, manufacturers are constantly improving battery cell systems. Patents are fundamental to protect R&D time and effort and (importantly) maximise a company’s commercial position.
Patents protect novel and inventive apparatus, devices, components, materials, structures and more, as well as methods of manufacture, assembly and even the use of existing or new apparatus and components.
In the modern age, a successful patent rarely protects a fundamental ‘game-changing’ innovation, with the majority of applications/patents directed to refinements or improvements on existing technology. Patents are highly valuable commercial tools as they are, in effect, a tangible legal asset that can be licensed or sold (assigned).
In recent years, companies have been racing each other to secure exclusivity to what might be the next game-changing battery development. For example, patent filings have continued to increase for solid-state electrolyte systems, as these are well-placed to eclipse their more bulky, hazardous and less environmentally friendly liquid/gel solvent counterparts.
Patents can protect the technical aspects of R&D efforts. Battery technology developers are obtaining patents for innovations across all parts of the cell and battery to maximise their commercial positions. Continued growth in patenting activity is evident and proving very effective, particularly for start-ups and smaller businesses, where protection for very specific aspects of a battery or cell enables them to capitalise on their experience, knowledge and expertise. This is because patents prevent unauthorised commercialisation of the new technology, allowing companies to exploit and capitalise fully on their time and R&D investment.
In the field of battery technology, ‘innovation’ encompasses the key materials, electrode and cell design, as well as the mechanical, electrical, and thermal aspects arising from charge/discharge cycles.
For larger applications, such as electric vehicles and energy storage, battery thermal management systems (BTMS) are significant. Research continues to push the achievable energy density within lithium metal batteries towards the safety limits. Electrolyte innovation is considered the most effective method to address safety issues, in the shadow of solid-state electrolytes.
Common to nearly all commercial sectors such as automotive, hand-held electronics and energy storage, the main drivers for battery development include:
As such, industries have approached battery technology development from two fundamental perspectives: i) battery pack components, fabrication and management and ii) improvements to cell components and materials.
It’s advisable that companies act early on in their R&D pathways to secure their commercial position with patent applications for promising lines of development.
Patents are being sought for the battery cell and its assembly, the module pack case (e.g. gas venting designs), battery connectors and the thermal and battery management system including hardware and software. Fabrication techniques, including the design of the N/P ratio, porosity, tortuosity, electrode thickness, and the cell tab all have significant influence on the temperature distribution within a battery. Uneven temperature distribution can be caused by the different heat generation and heat dissipation conditions in the electrode. For example, local heat concentrations will lead to excessive localised temperature rise, fast lithium growth and internal short circuit.
A decrease in porosity or increase in electrode thickness can enhance the ion concentration and potential gradient, which can affect the Joule heat generation. When a local temperature reaches the critical value of thermal runaway, a chain reaction occurs, which magnifies heat accumulation within the battery. As such, to develop high-performance LIBs with guaranteed safety, electrode structures are continually being developed alongside temperature management systems (software and hardware).
Next generation materials and components are continually being developed including films and coatings within the cell such as insulating polymer films and ceramic based coatings employed as separators and insulators. Patent filings for new innovative materials are being seen for copper, graphite (graphene), aqueous/solvent mixtures, binders, dispersants, high conductivity carbons, cobalt, nickel and manganese materials, lithium carbonates, organic carbonates, aluminium, a variety of organic and inorganic polymers for insulating and separating materials, aluminium oxide and other ceramic materials primarily used as separators.
A significant amount of R&D and patent activity is focused to anode and cathode structures and materials to try and maximise overall electrochemical performance. Some example cathode materials associated with patent filings include layered oxides such as LiCoO2, spinel oxides such as LiM2O4 (where M is Ti, V, and Mn) and polyanion oxides such as Fe2(MoO4)3.
There is a growing body of patents focused to materials that provide very specific technical effects such as improved electronic conductivity, thermal stability, high charge–discharge rates and structural integrity. Materials that achieve high operating voltages, energy density and power capability are often associated with valuable patents.
For example, WO 2020/018957 A1 (Cellmobility Inc) is focused to cathode and anode active materials to provide greater energy density, higher power, improved safety and longer cycle life. The inventors use freeze-casting methods to create aluminium or nickel metal-foam cathode active materials which may be coated subsequently and/or filled with lithium cobalt oxide slurries. The resulting open-cell metal-foam cathode (and anode) is formed as porous skeleton structures that may be filled with the high-capacity active materials such as lithium cobalt oxide (LCO).
There is also considerable R&D focused to generating battery components and materials that are conveniently recycled orenabled for second life applications. WO 2020/185958 A1 (Univ California) is focused to a NCM cathode material that may be readily recycled for re-use and enables the recovery of lithium and other transition metals. A significant volume of the high value material within a battery is embedded within the cathode material. Existing approaches to recycling cathode materials include pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and direct recycling. These typically destroy the LIB cathode particle structures, which are energy- and time-intensive to create. Directly regenerated cathode materials have the potential to exhibit high specific capacity, high cycling stability and high rate capability. However, lithiation of degraded Li-deficient cathode particles requires high-temperature and high-pressure processing to achieve the desired cyclometric ratio of Li in the cathode. The inventors of this patent application provide an LIB cathode formed from an active cathode material such as lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) and more specifically LiNiO with a eutectic molten-salt solution such as lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and lithium nitrate (LiNO3). The composite cathode material may be recycled via ambient-pressure re-lithiation of the degraded Li-deficient cathode active materials to provide a bulk crystal structure that may be recovered from a more convenient regeneration process.
Pure lithium metal as an anode has a high specific capacity and doesn’t require any host materials. However, the growth of dendritic lithium during charging causes an internal short circuit, leading to serious safety concern. Also, the unsatisfactory performance of some LIBs is associated with the limited space for lithium ions within anodic host materials.
The solutions to these various technical problems and practical challenges can provide the fundamental basis for patent protection.
Some of the technical challenges that are driving anode innovation include:
Example anode materials that are the focus of patent activity are based on lithium, silicon, aluminium, tin, and graphite. Specifically engineered materials include lithium-titanate-oxide structures in which the lithium ions move into free intercalation-sites within the crystal-lattice.
Patent rights are being obtained for alternatives to carbon-based anodes — particularly lithium alloys with P, Sn, Ge, and Si that can deliver large specific capacities. As well as graphene derivatives, silicon has emerged as one possible good performing replacement for hard carbon-based anode materials due to its high stable and theoretical capacity (around 3,500 to 4,200 mAh/g), being around ten times higher than graphite anodes.
To successfully implement Si anodes in LIB cells, various technical challenges are being addressed with continued R&D that is underpinned by patent protection. Patents are being filed for new Si-based materials that offer better intrinsic conductivity and reduced volume expansion during Li-alloying reactions, with improved interfacial instability with the electrolytes.
New Si-based materials are being patented with novel nanoscale structures and functional coatings that offer to accommodate volume changes and provide dense and stable SEI layers. These new anode materials promise enhanced electrochemical properties, e.g., coulombic efficiency, cycle efficiency, cycle life and rate capability. The thermal stability of high specific capacity electrode materials must be carefully considered, and patented solutions include thermally stabile SiO material based on dopant carbon or TiO2 coatings having core-shell Si nanoparticles and TiO2/carbon mesoporous microfiber composites.
WO 2021/096148 A1 (LG Energy Solution Ltd) is focused to an anode with a series of current collectors arranged in parallel that includes a combination of layers containing different active materials based on silicon, silicon oxide and a silicon-metal alloy such as Sn, Li, Zn, Mg, Cd, Ce, Ni, Fe, Cr and Ti. The active material also includes low or high crystalline carbon such as graphite. Example current collectors include copper, gold, nickel or alloys arranged as a stacked multifoil substrate. The new anode configuration is focused to preventing deterioration in the output characteristics of the battery and high overall capacity and battery stability.
WO 2021/091934 A1 (Univ Pittsburgh Commonwealth Sys Higher Education) claims a new anode architecture with a multilayer composite structure that includes a copper collector substrate, an elastic polymer formed at the surface of the substrate and being impervious to the lithium that may include for example hydrocarbon polymer materials. Carbon nanofibers are then deposited onto the elastic polymer as a further layer via electro spinning and thermal treatment. This structure is claimed to be advantageous to provide a dendrite-free lithium metal-plated anode.
The inventors of WO 2020/081379 A1 (Global Graphene Group Inc) designed an anode active material layer and electrode for a lithium battery that contains a unique class of anode active materials. The electrode comprises multiple particulates of an anode active material, an optional electron-conducting material as a matrix, binder (or filler material) and pores. The components (anode active material particles, electron-conducting material, and pores) are encapsulated by a thin layer of an electrically conducting material (e.g. a carbonaceous or graphitic material, with a layer thickness from 1 nm to 10 pm, an electric conductivity from 106 S/cm to 20,000 S/cm and a lithium ion conductivity from 10 -8 S/cm to 5 x 10 -2 S/cm.
Within Li-ion rechargeable batteries, the cathodes that store lithium ions via electrochemical intercalation must contain suitable lattice sites to releasably accommodate the working ions. Robust crystal structures with sufficient host sites are required for stable cyclability and high specific capacity. In addition, a cathode with high electrochemical intercalation potential can be used to develop a high energy density battery based on the differential electrochemical potentials between the cathode and anode.
Cathode materials play a key role in the thermal stability of LIBs. Phase transformation and oxygen release in overcharge are usually accompanied by heat generation and oxidation of the electrolyte and separator. Various patents are associated with solutions to these specific problems.
Nickle cobalt aluminium (NCM) is one of the more promising cathode candidate materials for high energy density LIBs and is widely patented. However, similar to LiFePO4, smaller particle sizes and higher surface area NCM cathode materials induce more side reactions that lead to poor thermal stability. Patented solutions include surface coatings and micron-sized single crystal NCM cathodes to enhance the thermal stability and cycle performance.
WO 2021/071311 A1 (Samsung Electronics Co Ltd) is directed to a cathode for small electronic devices such as mobile phones having high capacity, quick charging and high output. This patent application is directed to an LiCoO2 cathode having enhanced chemical and structural stability which minimises charge-discharge cycle life degradation and avoids internal short circuiting. The inventors provide a cathode material having minimised internal resistance to improve the LIB performance for quick charging. A multilayer cathode is designed having active materials formed from a first type of LiCoO2, a second type of LiCoO2, and a coating layer formed from LiCoxMnyFezPO4 where the first and second LCO materials differ in size to create cavities that may be filled with the LiCoxMnyFezPO4 material from the coating. The difference in size of the various materials increases the packing density to improve energy density.
WO 2020/215316 A1 (Dow Global Technologies LLC) relates to an LIB cathode formed from a slurry of an active material, a nano-sized conductive agent, a polymer binder, a solvent and a dispersant. It is generally recognised that the smaller the size of the conductive agent, the better the conductivity. However, such materials tend to aggregate easily and are not well dispersed in the resulting cathode architecture. Conventional dispersion techniques include the use of static electricity to change the particle surface electric energy density and type. However, such a method typically requires high levels of dispersants. The inventors of this patent application use a specific combination of solvent formed from a straight or branched chain alkyl or alkoxy compound, combined (for example) with an acetamide and a polyvinyl pyrrolidine dispersant.
WO 2021/094772 A1 (Dyson Technology Ltd) is focused to a method of manufacturing a cathode for a solid-state battery using plasma sputtering to deposit a layer of crystalline LiCoC. The inventors claim the plasma deposition method facilitates deposition of the sputter material onto the substrate from a remote/target source to generate a layer of crystalline LiCoC that requires no additional annealing step. The method is compatible with a wide range of substrates at an industrial scale and achieves full target utilisation for maximised efficiency of source materials and in particular high value lithium feedstocks.
As critical components in LIBs, the electrolyte and separator have been the subject of significant patenting activity, Patent claims are typically focused to the composition of the organic compounds (for example, alkyl carbonates and polyolefin mixtures and compositions). The electrolyte is preferably electrochemically inert and is critical for ion transport throughout the cell during charge/discharge and to prevent direct contact between cathode and anode.
Reasonably common LIB electrolytes, with operation temperature below 80°C are formed from volatile and flammable organic solvents, such as linear and cyclic alkyl carbonates, corrosive inorganic lithium salts and additives. Accordingly, innovative patented developments include flame retardant additives, shear thickening electrolytes and — more significantly — non-flammable solid electrolytes and interfaces.
WO 2019/107068 A1 (Panasonic IP Man Co Ltd) is directed to a non-aqueous electrolyte for a secondary battery having improved temperature stability. This is achieved by the electrolyte having a porous resin structure that is reinforced by a filler formed by inorganic particles having high heat resistance (relative to phosphate particles). The porous resin structure is designed to be less susceptible to deformation or shrinkage so as to specifically avoid contact between the positive and negative electrode. In particular a separator is provided having a multilayer structure formed from a porous silicon substrate, a first filler layer containing the phosphate particles and a second filler layer having inorganic particles of high heat resistance. With the second filler layer disposed on the porous resin substrate, at high temperatures, the phosphate particles contained in the first layer melt and flow into the pours of the porous resin substrate. The melted phosphate undergoes polycondensation to form a coating film at the negative electrode. The resulting resin substrate, being reinforced by the second filler layer (containing the inorganic particles having higher heat resistance), is less likely to shrink or deform. The inventors claim that the likelihood of contact between the electrodes is therefore reduced. WO 2021/084957 A1 (Panasonic IP Man Co Ltd) claims a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery in which the positive electrode contains a composite oxide formed from lithium and a transition metal and additive having an amino, a methacryl and a thiol organic functional group in combination with Si or Ti bonded to the organic. The organic group is covalently immobilised on the surface of the cathode. As such, if the battery is exposed to high temperatures (for example, due to an internal short circuit) oxygen generated from the positive electrode is absorbed by the organic group containing additive. The inventors aimed to develop a system to suppress elevated internal pressures and provide a battery with enhanced safety.
The employment of a flame-retardant additive (FRA) is an effective strategy to reduce the flammability of electrolytes. Free radical trapping is one example of a patented FRA mechanism for safer LIB. The concept is for the FRA to release radicals (usually P or halogen containing) that can scavenge active radicals (such as H· and OH·) and suppress undesired free radical chain reactions, leading to combustion. Organophosphates, such trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP), have been used as FRAs.
Some of the technical considerations here, that are leading to patentable concepts, include formulations that achieve a good balance between reducing flammability and improving safety, without significantly increasing electrolyte viscosity and lowering ionic conductivity.
WO 2020/238302 A1 (Huawei Tech Co Ltd) claims an electrolyte for a lithium secondary battery that includes a lithium salt, an organic solvent and a flame retardant based on cyclotriphosphazene. Alternative approaches to incorporate flame retardance within conventional electrolytes include adding phosphorous or silicon compounds. However, these tend to have poor compatibility with the electrodes and negatively affect high energy density. The inventors of this patent application aim to provide an electrolyte having flame retardant characteristics as well as suitable electrochemical performance. This is achieved by the electrolyte including a pentafluoro ring with an electron donating group and an electron withdrawing group. This is claimed to give a battery with a good safety and electrochemical performance, as well as to addressing the problems of electrolyte delamination and lithium salt precipitation associated with alternative approaches to flame retardant electrolytes.
Internal electrical shorts may occur in liquid electrolyte LIBs as a result of a vehicle impact/crash. This may then lead to thermal runaway (TR) and combustion. Shear thickening is an important behaviour in fluid mechanics, which is being patented as part of an electrolyte system. In these shear thickened systems, the electrolyte, which is liquid phase under normal operating conditions, will transform into gel or other semi-solid forms in response to shear forces. This in turn inhibits short circuits and reduces fire risks.
WO 2019/113365 A1 (UT Battelle LLC) is focused to a stabilised shear thickening electrolyte. In particular, the inventors designed a passively impact-resistant composite electrolyte composition configured to undergo passive shear thickening upon application of an external force such as an impact or other mechanical damage for improved battery safety and stability. Shear thickening of electrolyte prevents contact between the cathode and anode and the catastrophic electrical shorting. By providing a passive configuration, the inventors designed a system that doesn’t require expensive electronic monitoring and over engineering of the battery cell. The electrolyte includes an aprotic electrolyte solvent, shear thickening ceramic particles and a stabilising surfactant. The stabilising surfactant includes a first portion for absorbing the shear thickening ceramic particles and a second portion that is absorbed by the solvents to form an electrochemical double layer. Upon impact, the ion conductivity of the electrolyte composition decreases. This prevents discharge of the cell or thermal runaway. The shear thickening of the electrolyte composition occurs quickly (of the order of between 1 millisecond to 100 milliseconds) in response to the impact of an object travelling at a speed of greater than 10cm/s to induce the shear thickening. The inventors select shear thickening ceramic particles that are highly dispersed within the electrolyte solution having electric insulating characteristics to help minimise short circuiting and the resulting excess heating. Example shear thickening ceramic particles include SiO2 materials (that have a higher capacity than the electrolyte) to increase the electrolyte overall heat capacity.
As indicated, the separator functions to prevent direct contact between the electrodes. However, thermal shrinkage or melting may induce cell shutdown and short circuit. Accordingly, many technical factors, such as mechanical strength, thermal and dimensional stability, permeability, porosity, chemical structure, ion transport capability and surface energy characteristics are all development areas that are providing basis for patent protection focused to separator materials and constructs. Development of separator materials continues to be the focus of patent protection with a view to improving electrochemical performance, safety and environmental effect. Separators are typically applied at the anode and cathode at a thickness ranging from one nm to the tens of µm. Naturally, the thinner the separator, the higher the energy density of the electrode-electrolyte system. An ultra-thin coated battery separator is ideal for maximising the energy density within the confines of safety and avoiding electrical shorting between the electrodes and the associated rapid increase in temperature and the risk of fire or explosion.
WO 2020/037494 A1 (Applied Materials Inc) is focused to a separator for an anode and cathode within a LIB with reduced charge time and higher overall capacity. The inventors of this patent application provide a separator formed from polymer-based substrate that includes a pair of ceramic-containing layers capable of conducting ions having thicknesses of 1 nm to 5000 nm. Materials for the ceramic layers may be formed from aluminium oxide, aluminium hydroxide oxide (boehmite, or akdalaite) calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, silicon oxide, zirconium oxide, hafnium oxide and similar.
Solid-state battery technology has the potential to significantly extend the performance and applications of battery technology to even more consumer and industrial markets. These solid electrolyte systems are non-flammable and can deliver higher energy density. Technical solutions to upscaling challenges including dendrite-grown, interfacial compatibility between the electrolyte and the electrodes and uncontrolled electrode internal resistance are the basis for significant patenting activity in this area. Solid-state batteries are also attracting significant attention and investment thanks to maturing technologies and the promise of production-ready concepts. Examples include Volkswagen’s investment in QuantumScape, Massachusetts-based Ionic Materials securing investment from Nissan, Mitsubishi and Renault, and Colorado-based Solid Power receiving investment from BMW, Samsung and Hyundai to help complete its multimillion dollar manufacturing facility.
Solid-state electrolytes typically behave as the ion transfer medium and separator, enabling downscaling since a separate (and specific) separator and casing are redundant. As such, these systems can be manufactured thinner, with more flexibility and contain more energy per unit weight/volume than conventional Li-ion electrolytes.
WO 2021/090774 A1 (TDK Corp) is focused to an all solid-state battery having an electrode layer, a solid electrolyte layer and an intermediate layer between the electrode and the electrolyte with the intermediate layer including carbon at a concentration level that is less than that in an active material layer of the electrode. The inventive concept aims to provide a battery system with significantly improved overall strength between electrodes and electrolyte by the specific distribution of the carbon within the active material layer of the electrode and the intermediate layer that provides a junction between the electrolyte and the electrodes. The inventors have noted that, according to earlier conventional constructions, an active material layer within the electrode typically makes it difficult to form a continuous electrical junction with the solid electrolyte. This creates gaps which in turn provide starting points for cracks and fractures that decrease the overall integrity of the cell. The carefully controlled carbon content of the various layers increases the adhesion between the electrodes and the electrolyte.
WO 2020/243128 A2 (Univ Michigan Regents) is a patent application focused to a cermet electrode for a solid-state lithium ion battery. The cermet is manufactured as a composite material with discreet ceramic and metallic phases that provide sufficient mechanical integrity to support thin solid electrolyte layers, but also include interconnecting porosity to allow a liquid, gel or polymer electrolyte to permeate into the cathode during manufacture. Specifically, the cathode comprises a lithium host material and a metallic material. The two are bound together to act as a binder and conductor. The lithium host material may be a lithium metal oxide where the metal includes aluminium, cobalt, ion, manganese, nickel or vanadium, together with lithium-containing phosphates. The solid-state electrolyte may be a mixed lithium metal oxide of the formula LiReMAO where Re may be (for example) La, Md, Pr, Pm, Sm, Sc, Eu etc; M may be Zr, Ta, Nb, Sb, W, Hf etc; and A may be H, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr etc. The cermet electrode is a porous, binder free cathode material having high mechanical strength and fracture toughness to support the solid electrolyte. The material is specifically designed to withstand stresses resulting from volume changes at the lithium anode. The specifically engineered cathode is designed to be load bearing and an improvement over earlier constructions in which the particle constituents are adhered together via binders with low volume fractions and high porosity and hence brittleness.
WO 2020/206365 A1 (Univ Leland Stanford Junior) is an international patent application focused to an ultra-thin, flexible solid polymer electrolyte. The solid electrolyte is engineered to create a porous matrix having channels incorporating ionically conducting fillers. The channels extend through the full thickness of the porous electrolyte film between the two electrodes. Example polymers include polytetrafluoroethylene (PTF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), nylon or polyethylene. In addition, according to some embodiments, the porous matrix is formed as an inorganic film/matrix, with Li-ion conducting ceramics being for example Li10 GeP2S12, or non-conducting inorganics such as Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and other metal oxides, metal sulphides, fluorides or chlorides.
WO 2020/045893 A1 (LG Chemical Ltd) relates to a solid polymer electrolyte that includes a multi-functional acrylic-based polymer, a flame-retardant polymer, a lithium salt and a non-aqueous solvent. The multi-functional acrylic-based polymer cross links with a polyalanine oxide to form a polymer network in which the flame-retardant polymer is blended to form a multi-functional acrylic-based polymer with high solid content and flame-retardant characteristics. The acrylic-based polymer may be trimethyl propane ethoxylate triacrylate and the polyalkylene oxide may include polyvalent groups such as polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide. The non-aqueous solvent may be dimethyl sulphone or triethylamine glycol diether. The flame-retardant polymer may be a polyphosphonate, phosphonate or phosphonate-co-carbonates.
If you’re looking to enhance existing patent portfolios or create new contributory technologies, it’s important to recognise the value of patent protection. We would encourage you to act early in your R&D pathway to secure your commercial position via patent protection for battery developments such as battery pack components, fabrication and management, and all improvements to cell components and materials.
Our chemistry-based battery technology team are well placed to advise on all aspects of battery technology, from cathode active materials to separators, electrolytes, binders, solvents and other additives within cell construction.
Get in touch with me today for an initial chat about your needs at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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